São Paulo, Brazil 3 May 2008
Thank you Global Greens for inviting us to Brazil to take part in this very important conference. Many of you may not know that Brazil does not recognize Taiwan passports, and that our delegation was only able to obtain visas to join this conference on account of the intercession of the Brazilian Green Party. We therefore give our special thanks to the Brazilian Greens and all members of the organizing committee.
On account of the efforts of the United States and China, Taiwan’s ability to join international conferences to discuss, debate and work towards solving global issues such as climate change, cross border pollution, conflict resolution, health issues and so on is extremely compromised.
This forum thus has special significance for us and for all the people and billions of other beings that inhabit the island that is known as Taiwan and whom we will do our best to represent.
Although Taiwan is known by many names, the name we like best is “Ihla Formosa”, the words that are said to have been expressed by the Portuguese explorers in the early 17th century when they first came upon the island, an island that had been inhabited by the ancestors of some 70% of today’s Taiwan residents. The ancestors of Taiwan’s Indigenous people had been able to maintain the island through millennia of sustainable economic, political and social practices. These slides will give you at least a hint of some of the beauty that remains and about which so many of us are so very passionate.
As a Japanese colony for fifty years, Taiwan is said to have “reverted” to rule by the Republic of China in 1945. The status of Taiwan remains unresolved under international law, including the rights of Taiwan’s half million Indigenous peoples. Lacking a de jure resolution, and the unlikelihood of a resolution soon, we must nevertheless look at the de facto status of Taiwan. More pertinent to this conference of the Global Greens, we will look at some of the environmental, social and economic facts about Taiwan in order to put our view of the future of the Global Greens into perspective.
Our country of about 23.3 million people with an area slightly smaller than Holland but nearly two thirds of which are mountainous, enjoys a diversity of plants, people and other animals, soils and terrains that give the country a vibrancy found in few other places on the Earth. Based on our land area and the surrounding oceans, we have the second highest level of biological diversity in the world, and were known to 19th century naturalists as the “Galapagos of Asia”.
All this has radically changed with the introduction of “modern” modes of life such as the Dutch pelt traders during the 17th and 18th centuries that resulted in the near extinction of the Sika Deer, the subsequent large-scale import of Chinese farmers to open and work rice and sugar plantations, the exploitation of camphor trees by the Qing and Japanese governments, and of course the horribly exploitative and short-sighted logging of two and three thousand year old trees, first by the Japanese, and then by the Chinese through the later decades of the twentieth century.
In recent years Taiwan’s economic development has run on parallel tracks.
On the one hand has been the local large-scale infrastructure development that began in the 1970s. This brought major highway, port, mining and mega-manufacturing facilities such as petrochemical, paper, cement and steel plants throughout the country.
On the other hand, our economy has been highly dependent upon the United States, first due to Taiwan’s strategic importance during the Korean conflict, then with a major USAID program, and more recently with a series of bilateral trade agreements beginning in 1987 and a push by the US to get Taiwan into the World Trade Organization. Taiwan’s relationship with the US is important. We are one of the major customers for US military sales and even excluding such sales Taiwan typically ranks 6th or 7th among the US’s trading partners.
Following what is known as “derecognition” of Taiwan by the US in 1988, the US enacted a domestic law, “The Taiwan Relations Act” which gives Taiwan a bizarre status outside the US diplomatic framework, but very much within the sphere of control by the US State Department and other agencies.
At the same time, Taiwan has a “special relationship” with China. China currently claims to own Taiwan. They have over a thousand missiles aimed at Taiwan, have passed a domestic law giving them the right to use force if Taiwan declares independence – such a declaration being unnecessary as Taiwan has long possessed the attributes of an independent country and with the elections of all new deputies to our legislature in 1992 and direct presidential elections in 1996, all the attributes of a fully democratic country – and relentlessly pursues a policy of “unification”, sometimes mistranslated as “unity”, through a number of direct and subtle activities.
These attempts at control by the US and intimidation by China have been going on for over sixty years. We Taiwanese have gotten somewhat accustomed to the situation and we are making slow but sure progress in finding our own way, a way that reflects the essence of Taiwan, independent of the US and China.
Despite this progress however, we Taiwanese would like to gain a little more room to work within the international community.
The “economic miracle” that Taiwan is known for in many circles has left a horrible legacy of environmental devastation, displacement of people, and health and social problems that are far out of proportion for a country the size of Taiwan and far out of proportion to possible benefits enjoyed by the people from the economic development of the past.
Emissions: A number of our “achievements” may give you an idea of the seriousness of the problem. Our per capita greenhouse gas emissions are third in the world; and with less than .3% of the world’s population we rank 22d for our total emissions. Indeed, among OECD countries from 1990 to the present, Taiwan’s growth in CO2 emissions placed us at number one in the world.
Population: Over two thirds of the island are high mountains which means that of the 36,000 square kilometers, only about 12,000 sq km are inhabitable – this is for a population of over 23 million. 5,000 people per sq km is much higher than any other country in the world, including Bangladesh which is currently known as the country with the highest population density.
Vehicles and highways: The roads and other vehicle habitats on the island are continually growing in order to accommodate the growing number of vehicles – over 20 million at the end of 2007.
Nuclear: Our government has allowed six nuclear reactors to be built within a radius of 30 kilometers and all of these are within 70 kilometers from the residences of eight million humans.
Consumption: Per capita consumption of cement in Taiwan is consistently first or second in the world as are our per capita consumption of electronics, disposable plastic products, and our per capita generation of industrial waste.
Industrial: The world’s largest coal fired power plant, at over 5.5 million megawatts, is located in central Taiwan and the government continues to accept applications for new plants in the area.
Government subsidies: the government keeps energy, water and industrial land use prices at levels that are among the world’s lowest in industrialized countries.
Health: Cancer rates of all types are soaring and despite calls from many experts linking this with environmental factors, the government insists of proving the link before it will take the statistics seriously.
Politics: Democracy in Taiwan, having made major strides in the 1990s has deteriorated to the point that elected representatives openly admit representing the interests of major conglomerates for whom they shamelessly peddle influence, and when they don’t get their way, threaten government agencies with budget cuts.
These are but a few examples of the strains on Taiwan’s environment, society and politics, challenges which led the World Economic Forum in 2005 to place Taiwan at 145 out of 146 countries on its Environmental Sustainability Index, and which led Taiwan’s former minister of the environment to note that living at today’s standards, Taiwan would require an area of 28.8 times our present size to be self sufficient.
This would be bad enough if it only involved Taiwan.
As Taiwan has begun to come to its senses on the social and environmental costs of short-term and short-sighted economic development, and attempted to impose some mechanisms (laws, pricing adjustments, etc.) to bring balance into play, industry has fled abroad to “greener” (i.e., lax environmental and labor standards) fields. Countries like China have been the place of choice.
Taiwan is currently the largest foreign investor in China. We speak a very similar language, many Taiwanese have close relatives in China and we share a great deal of cultural heritage with the Chinese. It is an easy place for us to do business.
So, take a look at what has happened to Taiwan’s environment over the last three or four decades, and multiply it by 250 times or so to get an idea of what we might see from China. And here we are speaking from the perspective of politics, social issues and from the perspective of impact on our natural environment.
On the other hand, there may be an opportunity here for the very same reasons there is a threat. If Taiwan, with the help of the international community (and we hope this will be the international green community, i.e., the Global Greens) can continue with its own reform of its economic and social values, why shouldn’t these values-as-reformed not be exported to China? The Charter of the Global Greens calls upon nations whose companies invest in foreign countries to use the highest standard of the two countries (i.e., home country and country of investment) in all economic, environmental and labor practices. This is a goal we think worthy of pursuing for China, Vietnam, and other target countries for Taiwan foreign investment. This reflects a deeply rooted ethic of “not doing unto others as you would not have them do unto you.”
We are inspired by this conference; particular by the opportunity it affords us to link up with the advance guard of green thinkers in the international community. We believe that we can take the ideas and insights gained in this sort of forum back to Taiwan, and if not immediately put them into practice, we will use them to generate discussion and eventually reform. Not only for our own country of Taiwan, but also for other countries in the region.
We see the future of green movements as a straightforward proposition: getting the world back to sustainability. That deceptively simple concept was elegantly defined in the 1987 report to the United Nations, “Our Common Future”, and in 2003 Taiwan passed a law incorporating the definition verbatim.
Our focus then, should be on “needs” rather than “wants”, and how we can satisfy these needs in a manner consistent with intergenerational and interspecies justice.
We believe in the people of Taiwan, as we believe in people around the world: having all the necessary and relevant information and having the opportunity to fully and meaningfully participate, we will do the right thing and we will find our way back to sustainability. Thank you again.
English text：Robin Winkler 文魯彬
Chinese translation team：林震洋、李涵茹、李宣衡、崔愫欣。 演講簡報製作：張傳佳
05/03/2008 – 00:00